How We Write Full Stack JavaScript Apps

I work as part of a team of freelancers and the typical projects we do use React/React Native, NodeJS, GraphQL. This post is aimed at those interested to learn how we build full-stack apps, and as an onboarding tool for those that join us in the future.

These are our core principles.

Keep It Simple

Easier said than done. Most developers understand simplicity is an important principle, but it’s not always easy to do. Simple code makes maintenance easier and makes it easier for all team members to contribute. It will also help you manage your own code half a year down the line.

Some mistakes I see:

  • Being too clever. Copy-paste code is sometimes okay. You don’t need to abstract every 2 pieces of code that look somewhat similar. I have made this mistake myself. We all do it. DRY is a good principle to follow, but choosing the wrong abstraction can be worse and complicates your codebase. If you’d like to read more about this, I recommend reading AHA Programming by Kent C. Dodds and Goodbye, Clean Code by Dan Abramov.
  • Not using the tools available. One example is using reduce instead of map or filter. Of course you can write your map using reduce instead, but it will likely be more lines of code, and harder for others to understand.
    Granted, simplicity is subjective. You will see experienced developers using reduce in places they don’t have to.
    There are times you will need to use reduce, and if you ever chain map and filter, reduce will likely be more performant as you can pass over the collection once instead of twice. This is a question of performance versus simplicity. In general I’d favour simplicity and avoid premature optimisation. If somehow the 2 pass map/filter becomes a bottleneck you can switch the code to use reduce instead.

Many of the following principles also aim to keep the codebase as simple as possible.

Keep Similar Items Nearby (Colocation)

This principle applies to many parts of the app. Both client and server folder structure, keeping things in the same repo, and what code goes in each file.

Keep your client and server folder in the same repo. It’s easy. Don’t complicate things. Everyone will be in sync this way. Having worked on projects that used multiple repos, it’s not the end of the world, but life is easier with a monorepo. You won’t accidentally have a client and server that aren’t in sync.

One common client folder structure is to group by file type. This structure uses a different folder for components, containers, actions, reducers, and routes. (Actions and reducers for those that use redux. I try to avoid it.) The components folder will hold something like BlogPost and Profile and the containers folder contain files called BlogPostContainer and ProfileContainer. The container will grab the data from the server and pass it to the dumb child component whose job it is to render the data to screen.

This structure works. At the least, it’s consistent which is important and a new person that joins the codebase will understand what’s going on and what goes where. The downside of this approach, and why I personally avoid it nowadays, is that you have to jump around the codebase a lot. ProfileContainer and BlogPostContainer have nothing to do with each other, but the files are located right next to each other and far away from where they’re actually going to be used.

I far prefer grouping files that will be used together next to each other — a feature-based approach. Stick the smart parent component and the dumb child component in the same folder. It will make your life a lot easier.

We typically use a routes / screens folder and a components folder. Components will hold things like Button or Input that could be used on any page of the app. Each folder within the routes folder represents a different page of the app and all components and business logic specific to that route are placed within that folder. Components that are used on multiple screens go in the components folder.

Within each route, you can create more folders inside it that group certain parts of the page. If the route contains a lot this makes sense. One thing I’d warn against is nesting too deeply. It will make it harder to jump around the project. This is another sign of overcomplicating things that don’t need to be. (On a side note, using command-p and search are a great way to jump around a project and find what you need, but file structure also has an impact.)

A somewhat similar approach is grouping by feature rather than by route. This approach worked well for me on a project that used Mobx State Tree and was a single page with lots of features on it. Grouping by routes is easy and doesn’t take a lot of brainpower to figure out what should be grouped together and where to find items. An annoyance of grouping by feature can be deciding what belongs where. The boundaries of a feature can be blurry.

Taking this a step further, you may even like to stick your containers and components in the same file. Or even further, just the two components into one. I know what you’re thinking. “WTF is this guy on about? That’s blasphemy.” In reality, it’s not as bad as it sounds, it’s actually quite good, and if you’re using React Hooks and/or generated code I’d recommend this approach.

The real question is why you would even want to split your components into smart and dumb components? There are a few answers to this:

  1. Easier to test
  2. Easier to use with a tool like Storybook
  3. Can use the same dumb component with multiple different smart components (or vice-versa).
  4. Can share smart components across platforms (e.g. React and React Native).

These are all valid reasons, but often not relevant. In our codebases, we often use Apollo Client with hooks. To test you can either mock Apollo responses or mock the hook. Same goes for Storybook. As for mixing and matching smart and dumb components, I’ve never actually seen this happen in practice. As for cross-platform usage, there was one project I was going to do this, but it didn’t end up happening. It would have been a Lerna monorepo. Today you may well choose React Native Web instead of this approach in any case.

So there are legitimate reasons to separate between smart and dumb components. It is an important concept to be aware of, but often you don’t need to be as worried about it as you think, especially with the recent addition of hooks to React.

The upside of combining smart and dumb components in the same component is that it speeds up development time and it’s more simple.

Furthermore, you can always split your component into two separate components in the future if the need arises.


We use emotion/styled-components for styling. There’s a temptation to split the styles into a separate file. I’ve seen people do it but having tried both approaches, I don’t see any reason to put your styles in a different file. As with everything else listed here, your life will be easier if you colocate your styles in the same file as the components they relate to.

The React docs include some concise notes on structure that I recommend reading over too. The biggest takeaway:

In general, it is a good idea to keep files that often change together close to each other. This principle is called “colocation”.

The same goes for the server. A typical structure that I personally avoid would look something like this:

│ app.js # App entry point
└───api # Express route controllers for all the endpoints of the app
└───config # Environment variables and configuration related stuff
└───jobs # Jobs definitions for agenda.js
└───loaders # Split the startup process into modules
└───models # Database models
└───services # All the business logic is here
└───subscribers # Event handlers for async task
└───types # Type declaration files (d.ts) for Typescript

We typically use GraphQL for our projects. There are models, services and resolvers files. Instead of splitting these 3 files across the app, stick them all in the same folder. The vast majority of the time they’ll be used together and it will be much easier for you to find them if they’re co-located.

Take a look at a sample server structure here:

Don’t Rewrite Types

We use a lot of type systems in our projects: TypeScript, GraphQL, database schema, and sometimes Mobx State Tree types.

You could end up writing the same type 3 or 4 times over. Avoid this. Use tools that auto-generate the types for you.

On the server, you can use a combination of TypeORM/Typegoose and TypeGraphQL to cover all your types. TypeORM/Typegoose will define your database schema as well as the TypeScript typings for them. TypeGraphQL will generate the GraphQL types and TypeScript typings.

An example of defining both TypeORM (MongoDB) and TypeGraphQL types in a single file:

GraphQL Code Generator is able to generate lots of different types. We use it to generate TypeScript types on the client as well as the React hooks to make calls to the server.

If you use Mobx State Tree, you can automatically get TS types from it by adding 2 lines of code, and if you use it with GraphQL, there’s a new package called MST-GQL that will generate the state tree from the GQL schema.

Using these packages together will save you rewriting a lot of code and help you avoid potential bugs.

Other solutions such as Prisma, Hasura and AWS AppSync can also help avoid type duplication. There are pros and cons to using these. For the projects we do these aren’t always an option either as we need to deploy the code to on-premise servers.

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This is here so I could add a cover photo :). Image taken from here:

Generate Code Wherever Possible

Beyond using the code generation tools above, you will find yourself writing the same code again and again. The number one tip I can give you here is to add snippets for everything you use often. If you write console.log a lot, make sure you have a cl snippet that will expand cl into console.log() for you. If you don’t and ask me to help debug your code I’ll be pissed off.

There are lots of snippet packages, but you can also generate your own very easily here:

Some of my favourite snippets:

  • cl — console.log
  • React component/hooks snippets
  • imes — import emotion/styled
  • sc — emotion/styled component
  • fn — print the filename of the file you’re currently in.

And here’s the code if you’d like to manually add them to VS Code:

Beyond snippets, something that can save you a tonne of time is writing code generators. I like using plop.

Angular has its own generators built-in and through the command line you can create a new component with 4 files present that every Angular component is expected to have. It’s a pity that React doesn’t have a feature like this out the box, but you can create it yourself using plop. If each new component you create should be a folder containing a component, test, and Storybook file, the generator can create this for you in one line. This makes our life a breeze in many instances. For example, adding a new feature on the server is one line in the command line that creates an entity, services and resolvers file with all the core pieces filled out automatically.

Another nice thing about generators is that it pushes your team to work in a consistent manner. If everyone is using the same plop generator the code will have an extremely consistent feel to it.

Take a look at this project for examples of generators we use:

Autoformat Code

This is an easy one, but not always done, unfortunately. Don’t waste time indenting code and adding or removing semicolons. Use Prettier to autoformat the code on every commit:


We discussed some of the tricks we’ve learnt over the years from trying different approaches. There are lots of ways to structure your codebase and there is no one “right” way of doing things.

The core ideas are to keep things simple, consistent, structured and easy to traverse. This will make it easy for multiple people to work on the project and feel at home right away.

I’d love to hear your thoughts or questions in the comments below.

About Me

I‘m a full-stack developer and founder of Skilled. Feel free to reach out at or follow me on Twitter @elie222.


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Founder: & Draft Fantasy. Full stack JavaScript Engineer.

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